Paraguay n : a landlocked republic in south central South America; achieved independence from Spain in 1811 [syn: Republic of Paraguay]
- Country in South America. Official name: Republic of Paraguay.
country in South America
- Bosnian: Paragvaj
- Breton: Paraguay
- Chinese: 巴拉圭 (Bālāguī)
- Czech: Paraguay
- Danish: Paraguay
- Dutch: Paraguay
- Esperanto: Paragvajo
- Finnish: Paraguay
- French: Paraguay
- German: Paraguay
- Greek: Παραγουάη
- Hungarian: Paraguay
- Interlingua: Paraguay
- Irish: Paragua
- Italian: Paraguay
- Japanese: パラグアイ
- Maltese: il-Paragwaj
- Norwegian: Paraguay
- Polish: Paragwaj
- Portuguese: Paraguai
- Romanian: Paraguai
- Russian: Парагвай
- Spanish: Paraguay
- Swedish: Paraguay
- Turkish: Paraguay
Paraguay, officially the Republic of Paraguay (Spanish: República del Paraguay ; Guaraní: Tetã Paraguái), is one of the only two landlocked countries in South America (along with Bolivia). It lies on both banks of the Paraguay River, bordering Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest, and is located in the center of South America, the country is sometimes referred to as Corazón de América - Heart of (South) America along with Bolivia and Brazil
EtymologyThe country is named for a river that runs almost right through the middle of it, from north to south. There are at least four versions for the origin of the river's name:
The literal translation from Guaraní is Para=great river or sea; Gua=from or belonging to or place; Y=water or river or lake. This could lead to:
- "Water or river belonging to the sea" (the Atlantic Ocean).
- "Water or river that belongs to a great river" (the Paraná River).
- "Water or river that comes from a sea" or "water or river from the place where the sea is" (the Pantanal wetland).
The fourth version states that it could be a corruption from Payaguá-y, "river of the Payaguás", a tribe that inhabited the banks and navigated its course.
HistoryPre-Columbian civilization in the wooded, fertile region which is now present-day Paraguay consisted of seminomadic, Guarani-speaking tribes, who were recognized for their fierce warrior traditions. Europeans first arrived in the area in the early sixteenth century and the settlement of Asunción was founded on August 15 1537 by the Spanish explorer Juan de Salazar y Espinoza. The city eventually became the center of a Spanish colonial province, as well as a primary site of the Jesuit missions and settlements in South America in the eighteenth century. Jesuit Reductions were founded and flourished in eastern Paraguay for about 150 years until their destruction by the Spanish crown in 1767. Paraguay declared its independence after overthrowing the local Spanish people on May 14, 1811.
Paraguay's history has been characterized by long periods of authoritarian governments, political instability and infighting, and devastating wars with its neighbors. Its post-colonial history can be divided into several distinct periods:
- 1811 - 1816: Establishment and consolidation of
- 1816 - 1840: Governments of José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia
- 1840 - 1865: Governments of Carlos Antonio Lopez and Francisco Solano Lopez
- 1865 - 1870: War of the Triple Alliance
- 1870 - 1904: Post-war reconstruction and Colorado Party governments
- 1904 - 1932: Liberal Party governments and prelude to the Chaco War
- 1932 - 1935: Chaco War
- 1935 - 1940: Governments of the Revolutionary Febrerista Party and Jose Felix Estigarribia
- 1940 - 1948: Higinio Morinigo government
- 1947 - 1954: Paraguayan Civil War (March 1947 until August 1947) and the re-emergence of the Colorado Party
- 1954 - 1989: Alfredo Stroessner dictatorship
- 1989 to date: Transition to democracy
- 1816 - 1840: Governments of José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia
In addition to the Declaration of Independence, the War of the Triple Alliance and the Chaco War are milestones in Paraguay's history. Paraguay fought the War of the Triple Alliance against Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay, and was defeated in 1870 after five years of the bloodiest war in South America. Paraguay suffered extensive territorial losses to Brazil and Argentina. The Chaco War was fought with Bolivia in the 1930s and Bolivia was defeated. Paraguay re-established sovereignty over the region called the Chaco, and forfeited additional territorial gains as a price of peace.
The history of Paraguay is fraught with disputes among historians, educators and politicians. The official version of historical events, wars in particular, varies depending on whether you read a history book written in Paraguay, Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil or Bolivia, and even European and North American authors have been unable to avoid bias. Paraguay's history also has been a matter of dispute among Paraguay's main political parties, and there is a Colorado Party and Liberal Party official version of Paraguayan history. Certain historical events from the Colonial and early national era have been difficult to investigate due to the fact that during the pillaging of Asuncion Saqueo de Asunción, the Brazilian Imperial army ransacked and relocated the Paraguayan National archives to Rio de Janeiro. The majority of the archives have been mostly under secret seal since then, in effect, precluding any historical investigation.
Leftist former bishop Fernando Lugo achieved an historic victory in Paraguay's presidential election in April 2008, defeating the ruling party candidate and ending 61 years of conservative rule. Lugo won with nearly 41 percent of the vote compared to almost 31 percent for Blanca Ovelar of the Colorado party.
PoliticsParaguay's politics takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Paraguay is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the National Congress. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
Politics in 1980sAfter World War II, politics became particularly unstable with several political parties fighting for power in the late 1940s, which most notably led to the Paraguayan civil war of 1947. A series of unstable governments ensued until the establishment in 1954 of the stable regime of Alfredo Stroessner, who remained in office for more than three decades. Alfredo Stroessner's human rights track record was one of the best in the continent, although he slowly modernized Paraguay, even though his government was hampered by interference from drug traffickers.
The splits in the Colorado Party in the 1980s and the conditions that led to this — Stroessner's age, the character of the regime, the economic downturn, and international isolation — provided an opportunity for demonstrations and statements by the opposition prior to the 1988 general elections.
The [Narco-Communist]PLRA leader Domingo Laíno served as the focal point of the opposition in the second half of the 1980s. The government's effort to isolate Laíno by exiling him in 1982 had backfired. On his fifth attempt, in 1986, Laíno returned with three television crews from the U.S., a former United States ambassador to Paraguay, and a group of Uruguayan and Argentine congressmen. Despite the international contingent, the police violently barred Laíno's return. However, the Stroessner regime relented in April 1987 and permitted Laíno to arrive in Asunción. Laíno took the lead in organizing demonstrations and diminishing somewhat the normal opposition party infighting. The opposition was unable to reach agreement on a common strategy regarding the elections, with some parties advocating abstention and others calling for blank voting. Nonetheless, the parties did cooperate in holding numerous lightning demonstrations (mítines relámpagos), especially in rural areas. Such demonstrations were held and disbanded quickly before the arrival of the police.
Obviously stung by the upsurge in opposition activities, Stroessner condemned the Accord for advocating "sabotage of the general elections and disrespect of the law" and used the national police and civilian vigilantes of the Colorado Party to break up demonstrations. A number of opposition leaders were imprisoned or otherwise harassed. Hermes Rafael Saguier, another key leader of the PRLA, was imprisoned for four months in 1987 on charges of sedition. In early February 1988, police arrested 200 people attending a National Coordinating Committee meeting in Coronel Oviedo. Forty-eight hours before the elections, Laíno and several other National Accord members were placed under house arrest.
Despite limited campaign activities, the government reported that 88.7% of the vote went to Stroessner, 7.1% to PLR candidate Luis María Vega, and 3.2% to PL candidate Carlos Ferreira Ibarra. The remaining 1% of ballots were blank or annulled. The government also reported that 92.6% of all eligible voters cast their ballots. The National Coordinating Committee rejected the government's figures, contending that abstention was as high as 50% in some areas. In addition, election monitors from twelve countries, including the United States, France, Spain, Brazil, and Argentina, reported extensive irregularities.
Shortly after the elections, researchers from the Catholic University of Our Lady of Asunción and the West German Friedrich Naumann Foundation released the findings of a public opinion poll that they had conducted several weeks earlier. The poll, which measured political attitudes of urban Paraguayans - defined as those living in towns with at least 2,500 residents - suggested that the Colorado Party had considerable support, although nowhere near the level of official election statistics. Asked for whom they would vote in an election involving the free participation of all parties and political movements, 43% named the Colorado Party; the PLRA, which finished second in the poll, was mentioned by only 13% of all respondents. Stroessner's name also topped the list of those political leaders considered most capable of leading the country.
Although contending that these results reflected the Colorados' virtual monopoly of the mass media, opposition politicians also saw several encouraging developments. Some 53% of those polled indicated that there was an "uneasiness" in Paraguayan society. Furthermore, 74% believed that the political situation needed changes, including 45% who wanted a substantial or total change. Finally, 31% stated that they planned to abstain from voting in the February elections.
Relations between militants and traditionalists deteriorated seriously in the months following the elections. Although Chaves and his followers had not opposed Stroessner's re-election bid, Montanaro denounced them as "legionnaires" (a reference to those Paraguayan expatriates who fought against Francisco Solano López and who were regarded as traitors by the original Colorados). By late 1988 the only major agencies still headed by traditionalists were the IBR and the National Cement Industry (Industria Nacional de Cemento). In September 1988, traditionalists responded to these attacks by accusing the militants of pursuing "a deceitful populism in order to distract attention from their inability to resolve the serious problems that afflict the nation." Traditionalists also called for an end to personalism and corruption.
LawParaguay's legal system is based on Roman law, Argentine codes, and French codes. In recent years, Paraguay has made important progress toward greater fiscal transparency. The fairly comprehensive financial administration law (1999) has been complemented by recent legal reforms that eliminated most tax exemptions, revamped revenue administration procedures and introduced standardized transparency requirements for public procurement, all of which reduce the scope for corruption. In addition, efforts are ongoing to clarify the relations between the government and the nonfinancial public enterprises (NFPEs), including through tariff adjustments that have reduced quasi-fiscal activities (QFAs) and the launching of external audits of the enterprises’ financial health carried out by international firms. However, Paraguay fails to meet several requirements (at times even basic ones) of the code: (i) the transparency and credibility of the budget as an expression of the government’s fiscal objectives and a guide to fiscal policy implementation are severely limited by the lack of an underlying consistent macroeconomic framework, the limited accountability imposed on the amendments introduced either by congress or the executive at both the approval and execution stages, and the lack of a modern framework for civil service; (ii) relations across different branches of government and between the latter and the rest of the public sector are not always clear and little information is provided on QFAs; (iii) few assurances of data quality are provided, as data reconciliation and assessments by the relevant national body are weak; and (iv) disclosure of fiscal information is sparse and its coverage not comprehensive.
DepartmentsParaguay consists of seventeen departments and one capital district (distrito capital): These are, with their capitals indicated:
Largest cities 2002 (from www.citypopulation.de)
Projected, estimate 2027
GeographyParaguay is divided by the Rio Paraguay into the eastern region —officially called Eastern Paraguay (Paraguay Oriental) and known as the Paraneña region — and the western region — officially Western Paraguay (Paraguay Occidental) and also known as the Chaco. The southeastern border is formed by the Paraná River, containing the Itaipu dam shared with Brazil. It is currently the largest hydroelectric power plant in the world, generating all the electricity required by Paraguay. Because Paraguay co-owns Itaipu Dam, they have the right to use 50% of electricity generated. Because they use less than 10% of that electricity produced, they sell the rest back to Brazil. Another large hydroelectric power plant on the Paraná River is Yacyretá, shared by Paraguay and Argentina. Paraguay is currently the world's largest exporter of hydroelectric power.
The terrain is made up of grassy plains and wooded hills to the east. To the west, there are mostly low, marshy plains.
The local climate ranges from subtropical to temperate, with substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, though becoming semi-arid in the far west.
Paraguay is a developing country with a 2005 Human Development Index score of 0.755. It ranks as the second poorest country in South America with a 2007 GDP per capita of US$4,000. Approximately 2.1 million, or 35%, of its total population is poor and approximately 1 million, or 15.9%, are unemployed.
Paraguay has a market economy marked by a large informal sector that features both re-export of imported consumer goods to neighboring countries, and thousands of small business enterprises. Paraguay's largest economic activity is based on agriculture, agribusiness and cattle ranching. Paraguay is ranked as the world's third largest exporter of soybeans, and its beef exports are substantial for a country of its size. A large percentage of the population derive their living from agricultural activity, often on a subsistence basis. Despite difficulties arising from political instability, corruption and slow structural reforms, Paraguay has been a member of the free trade bloc Mercosur, participating since 1991 as one of the founding members.
Paraguay's economic potential has been historically constrained by its landlocked geography, but it does enjoy access to the Atlantic Ocean via the Paraná River. Because it is landlocked, Paraguay's economy is very dependent on Brazil and Argentina, its neighbors and major trade partners. Roughly 38% of the GDP derives from trade and exports to Brazil and Argentina.
Through various treaties, Paraguay has been granted free ports in Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil through which it sends its exports. The most important of these free ports is on the Brazilian Atlantic coast at Paranaguá. The Friendship Bridge that now spans the Paraná River between Ciudad del Este and the Brazilian city of Foz do Iguaçu permits about forty thousand travelers to commute daily between both cities, and allows Paraguay land access to Paranaguá. A vibrant economy has developed in Ciudad del Este and Foz do Iguaçu mostly based on international commerce and shopping trips by Brazilian buyers colloquially called sacoleiros.
Bilateral EU-Paraguay trade in goods amounts to €437 million in 2005; the EU importing around €269 million and exporting roughly €168 million. In 2005, trade with EU represented 8.9% of total Paraguay’s trade. The EU market represents 13.7% of Paraguay exports and 6.1% of its imports.
While the country’s external debt remains satisfactory (40% of GDP), Paraguay’s economy is still driven by agricultural production (27% of GDP and 84% of exports). It is a structure which is very vulnerable to climatic factors and price volatility. In 2004 its main exports were soybeans (35%) and meat (10%). Because of the regional crisis, very limited economic growth (2.7% in 2005) and a population increase, GDP per capita has fallen considerably in the long term, standing at USD 1 155 in 2005. Combined with inequality, the aforementioned factors explain why poverty currently affects 40% of the population.
Although only ranked 112th out of 175 countries in the 2006 World Bank Doing Business ranking, Paraguay has ranked particularly well in the "Protecting Investors" sub-category within that index. The indexes vary between 0 and 10, with higher values indicating greater disclosure, greater liability of directors, greater powers of shareholders to challenge the transaction, and better investor protection, respectively.
The "Disclosure Index" for Paraguay is 6, whereas the Latin American region ranked only 4.3 (OECD countries ranked 6.3 on average). The country ranked 5 in "Director Liability Index", the same as OECD countries and better than the 5.1 attributed to its neighbors. In the "Shareholder Suits Index" category, Paraguay obtained 6 points, in contrast with 5.8 for its neighbors and 6.6 for OECD countries. The comprehensive "Investor Protection Index" attributed 5.7 to Paraguay, 5.1 to its neighbors and 6.0 to OECD countries on average.
According to the CIA World Factbook, Paraguay has a population of 6,669,086; 95% of which are mestizo (mixed Spanish and Amerindian) and 5% are "other". Small groups of ethnic Italians, Germans, Japanese, Koreans, Chinese, Arabs, Ukrainians, Brazilians, and Argentines settled in Paraguay and they have to an extent retained their respective languages and culture, particularly the Brazilians who represent the largest number.
About 75% of all Paraguayans can speak Spanish. Guaraní and Spanish are both official languages.
A US State Department report on Religious Freedom names Catholic, evangelical Christian, mainline Protestant, Jewish (Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform), Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon), and Baha'i as prominent religious groups and also mentions a large Muslim community in Alto Paraná as a result of middle-eastern immigration, especially from Lebanon and also the Mennonite community in Boquerón.
The Church of the Latter Day Saints (LDS, Mormon), claims more than 66,000 members in Paraguay and that its membership has doubled in the past five years.
ImmigrationEuropean and Middle Eastern immigrants began making their way to Paraguay in the decades following the War of the Triple Alliance. The government pursued a pro-immigration policy in an effort to increase population. Government records indicated that approximately 12,000 immigrants entered the port of Asunción between 1882 and 1907, of that total, almost 9,000 came from the Italy, Germany, France, and Spain. Migrants also arrived from neighboring Latin American countries, especially Argentina.
In addition, official records gave an imprecise sense of the number of Brazilians who had come to the country. According to the 1982 census, there were 99,000 Brazilians residing in Paraguay. Most analysts discounted this figure, however, and contended that between 300,000 and 350,000 Brazilians lived in the eastern border region. Analysts also rejected government figures on the number of immigrants from the South Korea, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. The 1982 census reported that there were 2,700 Koreans in Paraguay, along with another 1,100 non-Japanese or non-Korean Asian immigrants. The actual number of Koreans and ethnic Chinese, however, was believed to be between 30,000 and 50,000. Virtually all Koreans and ethnic Chinese lived in Ciudad del Este or Asunción and played a major role in the importation and sale of electronic goods manufactured in Asia. This inequality has cause a great deal of tensions between the landless and elites.
The World Bank has helped the Paraguayan government in tackling overall reduction of Paraguay's maternal and infant mortality. The Mother and Child Basic Health Insurance Project aimed at contributing to reducing mortality by increasing the use of selected life-saving services included in the country's Mother and Child Basic Health Insurance Program (MCBI) by women of child-bearing age, and children under age six in selected areas. To this end, the project also targeted at improving the quality and efficiency of the health service network within certain areas, in addition to increasing the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare's (MSPBS) management.
- Sandra Bao, Ben Greensfelder and Carolyn Hubbard, Lonely Planet Guide: Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay
- National Department of Tourism
- Tourism in Paraguay
- Ministry of Finance with economic and Government information, available also in English
- Encyclopaedia Britannica Paraguay Complete guide to Paraguay's history and culture
- CIA - The World Factbook: Paraguay
- Paraguay Convention & Visitor's Bureau
- ABC Color
- Última Hora
- La Nación
- Jakueke News Portal -- Independent Media.
- Neike Online Newspaper.
- Portal Paraguayo de Noticias (Paraguayan News Portal).
- Paraguay main cities satellite views
- Paraguay.com Paraguay Resource Site. Culture, History, Arts, Geography and more.
- The history of Paraguay Paraguay's history
Paraguay in Afrikaans: Paraguay
Paraguay in Arabic: باراغواي
Paraguay in Aragonese: Paraguai
Paraguay in Franco-Provençal: Paragoayi
Paraguay in Asturian: Paraguay
Paraguay in Guarani: Paraguái
Paraguay in Aymara: Parawayi
Paraguay in Azerbaijani: Paraqvay
Paraguay in Bengali: প্যারাগুয়ে
Paraguay in Min Nan: Paraguay
Paraguay in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Парагвай
Paraguay in Bosnian: Paragvaj
Paraguay in Breton: Paraguay
Paraguay in Bulgarian: Парагвай
Paraguay in Catalan: Paraguai
Paraguay in Chuvash: Парагвай
Paraguay in Cebuano: Paraguay
Paraguay in Czech: Paraguay
Paraguay in Corsican: Paraguay
Paraguay in Welsh: Paraguay
Paraguay in Danish: Paraguay
Paraguay in German: Paraguay
Paraguay in Dhivehi: ޕެރަގުއޭ
Paraguay in Lower Sorbian: Paraguay
Paraguay in Estonian: Paraguay
Paraguay in Modern Greek (1453-): Παραγουάη
Paraguay in Spanish: Paraguay
Paraguay in Esperanto: Paragvajo
Paraguay in Basque: Paraguai
Paraguay in Persian: پاراگوئه
Paraguay in Faroese: Paraguei
Paraguay in French: Paraguay
Paraguay in Irish: Paragua
Paraguay in Manx: Yn Pharaguay
Paraguay in Scottish Gaelic: Paraguaidh
Paraguay in Galician: Paraguai - Paraguay
Paraguay in Hakka Chinese: Pâ-lâ-kûi
Paraguay in Korean: 파라과이
Paraguay in Croatian: Paragvaj
Paraguay in Ido: Paraguay
Paraguay in Iloko: Paraguay
Paraguay in Bishnupriya: পারাগুয়ে
Paraguay in Indonesian: Paraguay
Paraguay in Ossetian: Парагвай
Paraguay in Icelandic: Paragvæ
Paraguay in Italian: Paraguay
Paraguay in Hebrew: פרגוואי
Paraguay in Pampanga: Paraguay
Paraguay in Kannada: ಪೆರಗ್ವೆ
Paraguay in Georgian: პარაგვაი
Paraguay in Kashmiri: पेरेग्वाय
Paraguay in Cornish: Paragway
Paraguay in Swahili (macrolanguage): Paraguay
Paraguay in Haitian: Paragwe
Paraguay in Kurdish: Paragûay
Paraguay in Latin: Paraguaia
Paraguay in Latvian: Paragvaja
Paraguay in Lithuanian: Paragvajus
Paraguay in Ligurian: Paraguay
Paraguay in Hungarian: Paraguay
Paraguay in Macedonian: Парагвај
Paraguay in Marathi: पेराग्वे
Paraguay in Malay (macrolanguage): Paraguay
Paraguay in Dutch: Paraguay
Paraguay in Nepali: पाराग्वाइ
Paraguay in Japanese: パラグアイ
Paraguay in Neapolitan: Paraguay
Paraguay in Norwegian: Paraguay
Paraguay in Norwegian Nynorsk: Paraguay
Paraguay in Novial: Paraguay
Paraguay in Occitan (post 1500): Paraguai
Paraguay in Uzbek: Paragvay
Paraguay in Pushto: پاراګوای
Paraguay in Piemontese: Paraguay
Paraguay in Low German: Paraguay
Paraguay in Polish: Paragwaj
Paraguay in Portuguese: Paraguai
Paraguay in Crimean Tatar: Paragvay
Paraguay in Romanian: Paraguay
Paraguay in Romansh: Paraguay
Paraguay in Quechua: Parawayi
Paraguay in Russian: Парагвай
Paraguay in Northern Sami: Paraguay
Paraguay in Sanskrit: पेरेग्वाय
Paraguay in Albanian: Paraguai
Paraguay in Simple English: Paraguay
Paraguay in Slovak: Paraguaj
Paraguay in Slovenian: Paragvaj
Paraguay in Serbian: Парагвај
Paraguay in Serbo-Croatian: Paragvaj
Paraguay in Finnish: Paraguay
Paraguay in Swedish: Paraguay
Paraguay in Tagalog: Paraguay
Paraguay in Tamil: பராகுவே
Paraguay in Tetum: Paraguai
Paraguay in Thai: ประเทศปารากวัย
Paraguay in Vietnamese: Paraguay
Paraguay in Turkish: Paraguay
Paraguay in Ukrainian: Парагвай
Paraguay in Urdu: پیراگوئے
Paraguay in Volapük: Paragvän
Paraguay in Võro: Paraguay
Paraguay in Wolof: Paraguwaay
Paraguay in Wu Chinese: 巴拉葵
Paraguay in Yiddish: פאראגוויי
Paraguay in Dimli: Paraguay
Paraguay in Samogitian: Paragvajos
Paraguay in Chinese: 巴拉圭